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Index Page

Maintained by Robert Meister WA1MIK

This page has undergone a major reorganization.
Everything is all still here; items just got moved.
Use your browser's SEARCH function
to find things, as they're now sorted better.


Note that the contents of this page, like most here at, are totally dependent on donations of information.
In other words, the repeater-builder web site and this Motorola web page is what the contibutors make it.
If you have a hint, or a useful trick, please consider writing it up and sending it in.

Motorola was split into two different companies early in 2011. There is still some confusion out there as to what products are handled by which company:

Motorola Solutions - effectively the old Motorola: deals with land mobile / two-way radio equipment, Canopy wi-fi systems, and some other things that are radio related. If you go to you are viewing the Motorola two-way (etc) company.

Motorola Mobility - essentially everything that is not land mobile / two-way radio: cable TV boxes, cellphones and some other things. This is the part Google offered to buy in August 2011 for $12.5 billion. If you go to you are viewing the Motorola Mobility web site. That web site has no concept of land mobile / two-way radio - not even a courtesy pointer.

Note: Any Motorola parts or manual prices mentioned on this page (or on any page at this web site) should be taken only as a rough guideline. Motorola adjusts prices quarterly, and offers one set of prices to their dealers/service shops (the so called "National Service Organization" (or "NSO") Pricing), another to "self-maintaining" fleet customers (i.e. those that have their own radio shops... cities, counties, police departments, fire departments, etc) and a third set of prices on their telephone order desk (i.e. retail sales). For these reasons readers should use the prices mentioned in an article only as a rough indication. We'd appreciate an emailed update if you discover a major price change on any item.

Note: Many articles on this page (or on any page at this web site) mention manual product numbers. Those manuals were available at the time the article was written but may no longer be available today. Motorola usually discontinues support for radio products that are over ten (10) years old. This means no more parts and no more manuals. If you need a manual for a radio, call Motorola and see if it's still available. If not, you'll have to look for a used one being sold privately or on the popular auction sites.

General Information Pages and Articles:

It's probably wise to read some of this first, because it will answer a lot of questions that may pop up as you navigate to other pages and read other articles.

How to order manuals or parts from Motorola   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
Some of the tricks I've picked up over the years...
Figuring out what you have   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
Cracking the model / ID number... with explanations of power levels, frequency bands, and a suffix table.
Deciphering the three-letter-and-four-digit part numbers   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
A web page compilation the number breakdown table. The data is combined from four different vintages of old Motorola Buyer's Guide publications.
Deciphering the first two digits of part numbers   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
A list of the parts categories from a 1976 publication.
Accounting Product Code (APC) List
Decodes the first three digits of many two-way product serial numbers.
Translating the battery date code   by Mike Pugh KA4MKG
Determining Date of Manufacture from the Serial Number
Touch Up Paint Colors   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
For years Moto has offered spray cans of color matched paint in their parts catalog. This is a list of the colors and part numbers that I know of, the usage and a few notes on alternate methods of color matching. Corrections and additions to the paint color table are quite welcome.
Radio Service Software (RSS) and the Radio Interface Box (RIB)
Some problems and some solutions... Compiled from information provided by several knowledgeable folks.
The Motorola Test Equipment Page   Radio test equipment made by or for Motorola.
The Motorola Portable Test Set Page   Radio test sets, metering kits and accessories.
Information on several vintages including the P-8501, TU546, S1056, S1057, S1058, S1059 series, R1033, RTX4005 and several base station / repeater test sets. Also has several portable radio test and programming cables.

Radio-Specific Pages and Articles:

The CDM-series and CM200/CM300/PM400-series Index Page
Information about the CDM750, CDM1250, and CDM1550 mobile radios and accessories, as well as their replacements: the CM200, CM300, and PM400 mobile radios.
The Genesis series Index Page
Information about the HT600, HT600E, MT1000, MTX800, MTX Classic, and MTX900 radios, chargers, batteries, and accessories.
An Overview of the GP6x Series of Handheld Radios   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
This series includes all of the GP6x series (including the GP68) plus the AP73 radios.
The GTX Index Page
Information about the 900 MHz GTX mobile and handheld, probably the fastest and easiest way to get on 900 MHz.
The Jedi Information Page
Information about the various Jedi radios, including the GP900, GP1200, HT1000, HT1100, JT1000, MT2000, MT2100, MTS-LS, MTX838, MTX2000, MTX8000, MTX9000, MTS2000, MTS2010, MTS2013, PTX1200, and the PTX3600.
The MaraTrac and M400 Index Page
Articles and information on the MaraTrac and M400 series mobile radios, including service manuals.
The MaxTrac, Radius, GM300, DeskTrac, and GR series Index Page
There are MaxTrac, MaxTrac 50, MaxTrac 100, MaxTrac 300, Radius, M10, M100 M120, M130, M208, M214, M216 and GM300 radios. Then there are the DeskTrac stations, the DeskTrac repeaters, the GR300, GR400 and GR500 repeaters. The radios are similar but they do have their differences. Service manuals can be found here.
The MCS2000 Index Page
Manuals and major parts diagrams.
The MICOR Mobile and Station Index Page -
This page has just about everything on the MICOR.
The Spectra TAC / Aux Receiver chassis is further down this page in the Spectra TAC section.
The Link Receiver built for the MSF and PURC stations is in the MSF and PURC section.
The Mitrek and Motrek Mobile Information page
Mitrek and Motrek mobile plus Super Consolette table-top base stations that use the Mitrek or Motrek mobile radios internally. See the MSR2000 Station pages for the base station version of the Mitrek.
The MSF5000 and PURC5000 Station Index Page
Note that the "PURC" station is MICOR-based and you should look there. This page is limited to the MSF5000 and related stations. Most of the information is for the UHF and 900 MHz equipment. Station manuals are on this page, as are articles dealing with the Link receivers.
The MSR2000 Station Index Page
Articles and manuals related to the MSR2000 stations.
The MT500/PT500 Handhelds Information page
Information, manuals and more.
The MTR2000 Station Index Page
Articles and manuals related to the MTR2000 and MTR3000 stations.
The MX Series Information page
The "MX Series" includes several crystal based (actually channel element based) and synthesized products that were first introduced in 1975. This radio series included the MX300, MX310, MX320, MX330, MX340, MX350 and MX360 handhelds, the PX300 and PX500 packsets, the MTR300 firetower repeater, the "APCOR" emergency medical repeater, and several others.
Modifying a Nucleus II paging transmitter for analog modulation   By Robert W. Meister WA1MIK.
The Quantar and Quantro Station Index Page
A collection of information about the Quantar (standard) and Quantro (high power) base/repeater stations.
The R100 and MCR100 Repeater Station Index page
These wall-mount small repeaters are available in VHF and UHF models. Most of the information on this page covers the UHF stations, and it includes PDF scans of the Instruction (service) manuals and other articles.
The Saber Handheld Information page
Motorola has discontinued manufacture and depot service on this radio, and many police, fire and other agencies are replacing them. Here's an overview.
An Overview of the SM50 and SM120 Mobile Radios   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
Information about the VHF and UHF SM50 and SM120 mobile radios.
The Spectra Radio Index Page
Motorola has discontinued manufacture and depot service on this radio, and many police, fire and other agencies are replacing them. While Mike Blenderman K7IC has the definitive resource web site on the Spectra radios, we have lots of good stuff here too.
The Spectra TAC Receiver and Comparator Index Page
All of the information and articles relevant to the voting comparator and MICOR receiver-based Spectra TAC receivers and Auxiliary receivers can now be found on this page. Additional conversion information for MICOR receiver boards can be found on the MICOR page listed above.
The Syntor, Syntor X, Syntor X9000, MCX, MCX100, MCX1000 and Mostar Index Page
Information, Modifications and manuals.
Improve the XPR 8300 Cooling Fan Control   by Bryan Dygert KC8LMI.
Relocate the temperature sensor on this MOTOTRBO repeater to increase PA reliability.
Interfacing the XPR 8300 MotoTRBO Repeater to a CAT-200B Repeater Controller   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
Probably would work the same with any controller.

Miscellaneous Information Pages and Articles:

Articles in this section may cover specific radios mentioned elsewhere, or may be of general use when dealing with many Motorola products.

Pyramid Vehicular Repeater Interfacing and Connection Information   Compiled by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
Pyramid makes vehicular repeaters and they have a LOT of radio-specific interfacing and connection information contained in application notes. Most repeater controllers require the same interfacing connections, so this is a good place to find info that's been proven to work in commercial situations.
Info on the T1480 series 4-can VHF-high duplexer / cavity filter panel   953 kB PDF file by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
This is the official Moto manual that covers the two-cavity and four-cavity models (T1481, T1482, T1485A, T1485AF, T1487A, T1487AF)
Info on the T1500 series 4-can UHF duplexer / cavity filter panel   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ
Motorola Channel Element information from International Crystal Manufacturing Company, Inc.
Using the GR1225 or GM300 with an IRLP repeater   By Don L. Blanchard, WA7GTU.
Note that the same software package (HVN9054 V4.0 CPS, runs on W3.1, 95, 98 and XP) is used to program the P1225 handheld, the M1225 mobile, the R1225 repeater, the GR1225 repeater and the RKR1225 repeater. However, the M1225 and R/GR/RKR1225 radios are totally different inside. The high power (25-45 watt) GR1225s will melt down on high duty cycle. Leave them at 25 watts and replace the fan yearly.
Trunk-mount Radio Antenna Jack Nut Wrench   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
Ever had to tighten or remove the SO-239 antenna connector on an older mobile radio? Usually it's an SO-239 with a round nut that requires a special spanner wrench to fit it. Here's an easy to make tool that will make the job a whole lot easier. Usable on MaraTracs, MICORs, Motracs, etc.
The Remote-mount Control Cable Connector Virus   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
While this happened to some MaraTracs, it can also happen to a lot of other remote-mount radios that have control head cables and connectors. This article tries to explain which came first: the bent pin or the bad cable connector. It shows the problem and how to fix it.
Securenet Concepts   467 kB PDF file
The ABCs of Motorola's Securenet digital voice encryption system.
Making your own TRN-4224A PL tone plug   by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
This device is used in mobile radio internal PL boards (i.e. Mitreks, Syntors, Maxar, Moxy, etc.), Systems-90 multi-PL mobile encoders and some other models.
This article is oriented towards the Mitrek and the HLN4181 since I first ran into the TRN4424 when modifying a Mitrek that had an HLN4181 tone board in it. Despite that, this information is valid for any equipment that uses the TRN4224 plug-in tone element.
Making your own TRN-6005A DPL code plug   by Jerry Matthews WAØUZI.
A quad DPL board for a MICOR base station is shown in the article, but the techinque is universal to any equipment that uses the TRN6005 in the DPL board including Mitreks, Syntors, Systems-90 multi-DPL mobile encoders, the Spectra TAC Receiver, Satellite Receiver, Auxiliary Receiver, MSR2000 stations and others.
This article also includes a table of normal and inverted DPL codes.
Touch-Code mobile microphone modification for 16-button operation   1.89 MB PDF file   By Jim Reese WD5IYT.
Touch-Code is Motorola's trademarked name for a DTMF (touch-tone) mobile mike.
Remember: when you press the PTT button you disable the DTMF pad.
XTL-1500 Information
Includes 900 MHz hex-editing specifically for CPS11 but should work with other versions.
Making a Programming Cable that works with a CM200/CM300/PM400 radio   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
How to modify a standard modular programming cable so it works with the newer CM200/CM300/PM400 radios.
Radio-to-RIB cables for the GM900, MC900, GM1100, GM1200, GM2000, MCX1200, MCS2000, MCX2000, MC2100 series of radios   submitted by Herbie Graham GI6JPO
These radios can be programmed via their RJ45 microphone connector or DB25 accessory connector, so there are two cables. They work with real or copycat RIBs.

Power Supply Articles and PDF Files:

F2366A / F2367A Battery-Reverting Power Supply   2.1 MB PDF file donated by Eric WB6FLY, fixed up by Bob WA1MIK.
HLN9455 Battery Revert Accessory for the GR400 and GR1225 Repeaters   1.6 MB PDF file.
HPN9005 Power Supply (made by Star-Werks) for the GR500 Repeaters   150 kB PDF file.
HPN9033 Power Supply (made by Duracomm) for the GR1225 and RKR1225 Stations   1.5 MB PDF file.
TPN1084A,B and TPN1088A,B Consolette Power Supply   4.6 MB PDF file donated by Carl Beaudry VA2CMB
This supply is used with the Mocom70 and possibly other desktop stations.
TPN1136A Power Supply and cables for the Maxar and MCX100 Radios   460 kB PDF file.
TPN1136A Power Supply and cable for the Moxy Radios   66 kB PDF file.
Motorola Desktop Power Supply Information   by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
Schematic diagrams and load tests for the HPN1007A, HPN1007B, TPN1136A, TPN1144A, TPN1154A, HPN3000A, and VPN1013A 5-15 amp units.
Improve the TPN1136A and TPN1154A Power Supplies   by Robert Meister WA1MIK.
After observing the dismal performance of the stock supply, a better and simpler circuit was designed to improve regulation. Includes load tests (run by Eric).

Radio and Equipment Manuals and Guides:

Manuals for radios that have model-specific index pages above can be found in their respective areas. This section has manuals for older or less-popular models as well as a few radios that don't have their own index pages.

AP73 Operator's Instructions   420 kB PDF
The AP73 was a poorly done rehash of the GP6x series commercial handheld for the amateur radio market. The first few pages are a quick reference card.
C74MSY series community repeater service manual   12.6 MB PDF scanned and donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
This is the Motrac / Motran vintage base station (pre-MICOR) repeater. The C74MSB series were the base station version of the same radio and this manual will be very useful on those radios as well.
D33CMT Transistorized Dispatcher radio   6881018A95-B   7.2 MB PDF   Photo   This is the manual for the 1965 D33CMT series - a 15 watt 2-channel pre-Motrac model.
Flexar Base Station Service Manual   6881035E55-B   6.84 MB PDF
Flexar Base/Repeater Station Service Manual   6881045E10-B   4.3 MB PDF
GM Series Professional Radio Selling Guide   6864114B38   1.7 MB PDF
This is for the European market GM340, GM360, GM380 radios, which are similar to the CDM series. This is NOT for the Radius GM300 products, which are similar to MaxTracs.
GM Series Professional Radio Basic Service Manual   6864115B51   1.5 MB PDF
This is for the European market GM340, GM360, GM380 radios, which are similar to the CDM series. This is NOT for the Radius GM300 products, which are similar to MaxTracs.
GP300 Service Manual   6880901Z93-C   6.5 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
GP640 User's Guide   6864110B24-A   2 MB PDF
H23BAC, H23BAM, P33BAC, P33BAM Handi-Talkie Instruction Manual   6.1 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
These are the hybrid transistor and subminiature tube based high band pack sets (the "luggie-talkies" or "hernia talkies")
HT50 User's Guide   6881055C65   2.4 MB PDF
HT750 / HT1250 / HT1550 Basic Service Manual   6880906Z54   5.2 MB PDF
L1158 and L1159 MRTI Service Manual   2.5 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Vincent VE2VXT.
The MRTI is a generic name for a line of Mobile Radio Telephone Interconnect units that was made for Motorola by another company - they were essentially a commercial autopatch unit. The MRTI units were an option starting with the MICOR stations.
L3276 Tone Remote Adapter Installation and Troubleshooting Manual   3 MB PDF   Donated by Jim K1VTY.
The tone remote adapter lets you control a mobile radio at a remote location from a desktop console using high-level guard-tone signalling commonly used with full-size base stations.
M1225 Service Manual   6880904Z96-A   13.7 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
The 4-channel version can do channel steering, the higher channel count models can NOT.
MC-Micro UHF Conventional Service Manual   6884828D06-L   36 MB PDF
This is the manual for what is commonly called the German MaxTrac. Two of these mobile radios were used in the German MC-Micro repeater, which was redesigned into the MCR-100 repeater which was redesigned into the R100 repeater. When the European MPT 1327 trunking system came along, the MC-Micro mobile radio was updated to support that mode.
MC-Micro UHF Trunking Service Manual   6802900B04-A   20 MB PDF
Motrac UHF Consolette Service Manual   6881005E15-C   8.3 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
This manual covers the L34MHB and L44MHB series of tabletop base stations that were derived from the UHF MHT series Motrac mobile radio.
Motran High Band Railroad Radio Service Manual   6881041A15-G   7.4 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
This manual covers the R43MST and R43MSB series radios.
Nucleus Paging Station Installation and Operation Manual   6881002F05-O   1.8 MB PDF
This is close to, but not quite the same as, the Nucleus II (Nucleus TWO).
Nucleus Paging Station and Nucleus II Paging Transmitter Menus   128 kB PDF
These are the menu quick reference pages for both the Nucleus and Nucleus II equipment from User Guides 6881000F10-N and 6881000F80-A.
PAC-RT mobile extender manual   6881010C06-B   5.7 MB PDF
This unit is commonly called a Pac-Rat, and it superceded the PAC-PL unit and was Motorola's answer to the early mobile extenders made by Pyramid company.
P21DDC PT200 (1.4w) and P31DDC PT300 (5w) low-band Service Manual   5.5 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
P21DDN PT200 (1.4w) and P31DDN PT300 (5w) low band Service Manual   8.6 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
P23DEN PT200 (2w) and P33DEN PT300 (5w) high band Service Manual   9.3 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
Canadian VHF PT300 (1.4w) Manual   6.7 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
This is for the CP23DDC and CP33DDC radios.
P43DEN PT400 (10w) high band Service Manual   5.6 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
The PT200 was essentially an HT200 in a heavy duty plastic lunch-pail style box with a big battery and a half-decent antenna.
CAUTION: The HT200 and PT200 / 300 / 400 are positive ground internally. DO NOT use both a cigarette lighter cord AND a mag mount at the same time on a negative ground vehicle or you will have an internal meltdown.
P44SXS (UHF) and P43SXS (VHF) Portable Repeater Manual   50.4 MB PDF   Donated by Tim Haake WAØTSY and scanned by Jacob Nagel ADØJA
These are 8-channel crystal-controlled repeaters with digital voice protection (scrambler) capability, carrier squelch or PL, with a built-in duplexer and an 8V internal battery backup. High and low power modes, 115/230VAC or 12VDC operation
FMR-926-9 for the above P44SXS or P43SXS Portable Repeaters   3.5 MB PDF   Donated by Tim Haake WAØTSY and scanned by Jacob Nagel ADØJA
FMR-926A Issue 3 for the above P44SXS or P43SXS Portable Repeaters   4.9 MB PDF   Donated by Tim Haake WAØTSY and scanned by Jacob Nagel ADØJA
Remote Radio Switch   6881071A85-G   5.3 MB PDF
This is the manual for a rather unique special purpose receiver (model number C1186B, C1186C, C1240A, C1240B, C1242A, C1242B, C1243A and C1244A).
Repeater Interface Communications Kit (R*I*C*K) manual   6880901Z79-B   4.7 MB PDF   Scanned and donated by Charles Gleason KB4MDZ; cleaned by WA1MIK.
SM50 and SM120 Service Manual   6880903Z45-A   24 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
Broken down into four more manageable parts below.
SM50 and SM120 Service Manual part 1 of 4   746 kB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
SM50 and SM120 Service Manual part 2 of 4   8.6 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
SM50 and SM120 Service Manual part 3 of 4   8.3 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
SM50 and SM120 Service Manual part 4 of 4   6.5 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
SP50 Service Manual   6880903Z24-A   5.2 MB PDF   Donated by Eric Lemmon WB6FLY.
Spirit "M" series owner's manual   6880905Z70   541 kB PDF
Touch-Code (DTMF) Microphone Manual   6881114E07-C   4 MB PDF   Donated by Bob WA1MIK.
ASTRO XTL 1500 Digital Mobile Radio Installation Manual Guide   6815851H01-O   4.2 MB PDF
Includes documentation of the 26-pin accessory connector and its signals.
ASTRO XTL 1500 Digital Mobile Radio Control Head User Guide   6815850H01-T   3.9 MB PDF
Includes quick reference cards.
XTN Series User Guide   6864110R04   2.9 MB PDF
The channel charts in this manual are also applicable to the Spirit M, GT and S series radios.

If anyone wishes to donate additional manual scans or hard-to-get part numbers, let us know. We'd really like to get information (including parts lists and user manuals) for the Saber, Astro Saber, XTL, XTS, MCS and MTS series.

Sales Brochures and Parts and Accessories Catalogs:

Motorola Catalog and Price List (July 2005)   1.4 MB PDF
More than you'll ever want to know. Accessories, Antennas, Batteries, Replacement Parts and Kits, Site Equipment, Test Equipment. Lists by part number.
Motorola Catalog and Price List (August 2007)   3.8 MB PDF
More than you'll ever want to know. Accessories, Antennas, Batteries, Replacement Parts and Kits, Site Equipment, Test Equipment. Lists by part number.
GP300 Parts List and Accessories List   1.2 MB PDF
The GP300 and the GTX handhelds use a lot of the same accessories, including batteries.
GR1225 Brochure   152 kB PDF
HT50 Brochure   1.1 MB PDF
HT750/1250/1550 Brochure   1.1 MB PDF
M1225 Sales Brochure   2.7 MB PDF
MT1000 Parts List and Accessories List   1.2 MB PDF
MT2000 Sales Brochure   83 kB PDF
MT2000 Parts List and Accessories List   1.4 MB PDF
MTS2000 Parts List and Accessories List   1.98 MB PDF
Saber Parts and Accessories List   3.0 MB PDF
SM50 and SM120 Parts and Accessories List   187 kB PDF

Miscellaneous Topics and History Articles:

Mike's Miscellaneous Motorola Minutia   A collection of information that used to be present on the Motorola index page. Authored and compiled by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
If you thought you recalled seeing something on this index page earlier, it might have been moved to this new catch-all page.
IMPRES Field Programmer User Manual   2.5 MB PDF file courtesy of Jacob ADØJA
RLN-4150A 7.5 Volt Universal Battery Eliminator   1.4 MB PDF file courtesy of Jacob ADØJA
Two-way Radio Encryption Modules Listed By Radio Series   26 kB PDF file dated 07/07/2007
20 kHz Spacing on UHF and Motorola Radios   A brief history of the UHF 20 kHz spacing issues in southern California and how some radios deal with it. Compiled by Mike Morris WA6ILQ.
The First Walkie-Talkie Radio   1.6 MB PDF, by Leonard H. Anderson, 25 June 2005
An affectionate look back in time and some thoughts about the first true fabled walkie-talkie. More on what would be considered portable radios than handheld radios, but still very interesting.
A very interesting web page on the history of Motorola Land Mobile radio
Well worth reading - and yes, 33 MHz was once considered to be the ultra-high-frequencies!   by Geoff Fors, WB6NVH   (offsite link)
The Mobile Telephone In Bell System Service, 1946-1985
Another page from Geoff Fors, WB6NVH   (offsite link)
Mobile radio as used by the California Highway Patrol from the 1960s to current
Another page from Geoff Fors, WB6NVH   (offsite link)
California Highway Patrol Motorcycle Radio History
Another page from Geoff Fors, WB6NVH   (offsite link)
California Highway Patrol Radio 2001
Another page from Geoff Fors, WB6NVH   (offsite link)
California Highway Patrol Radio 2009   Touch screens while in pursuit? What ARE they thinking?
Another page from Geoff Fors, WB6NVH   (offsite link)

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Motorola® and just about every radio model mentioned on this page or its articles are registered trademark of Motorola Inc. Logo image used with permission.

Trademarked names belong to the owner and no misuse, violation or infringement is intended. All usage on these web pages at this web site is for descriptive or educational purposes.

This web page, this web site, the information presented in and on its pages and in these modifications and conversions is © Copyrighted 1995 and (date of last update) by Kevin Custer W3KKC and multiple originating authors. All Rights Reserved, including that of paper and web publication elsewhere.